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Biosensors for pathogen surveillance

J, Brindha, Chanda, Kaushik, MM, Balamurali
Environmental chemistry letters 2018 v.16 no.4 pp. 1325-1337
antibiotic resistance, carbon quantum dots, crystals, dielectric spectroscopy, electrochemistry, electrodes, fluorescent dyes, food pathogens, health services, immunosensors, microbial detection, monitoring, photobleaching, surface plasmon resonance, virulence
Biologists, chemists, and physicists are collaborating to develop highly sensitive and specific biosensors for pathogen detection in the food, healthcare, and environmental sectors. Those novel biosensors allow quick detection and are thus expected to solve the issues of the emergence of highly virulent or antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This article reviews different types of biosensors used for pathogen detection, classified based on the type of transducer used. Optical biosensors integrate labeled means, e.g., fluorophores, quantum dots, and carbon dots to overcome photobleaching. Surface plasmon resonance is also used for enhanced sensitivity. Mechanical biosensors with piezoelectric crystals and cantilevers are adapted for the detection of food pathogens without sample preparation or labels. Conventional methods using electrodes for the measurement of electrochemical changes with differential pulse voltammetry or impedance spectroscopy are fast and highly sensitive. Immunosensors are developed for pathogen detection at trace levels using sample enrichment, signal amplification, and new visual detection techniques.