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Toxicity of the pyrethroid bifenthrin insecticide
- Yang, Ye, Wu, Nanxiang, Wang, Chunlei
- Environmental chemistry letters 2018 v.16 no.4 pp. 1377-1391
- adverse effects, aquatic organisms, bifenthrin, developmental toxicity, enantiomers, humans, immunotoxicity, in vivo studies, metabolites, nontarget organisms, pest control, pyrethrins, residential areas, risk, wildlife
- Bifenthrin is a chiral synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that has been commonly used for agricultural and domestic pest control over the past decades. Due to its widespread application, residues of bifenthrin has been frequently detected in environmental media, residential areas and biota, thus posing potential risks to the health of wildlife and humans. In particular, bifenthrin exhibits high acute lethal toxicity to aquatic species, and it is the primary contributor to the toxicity of insecticides in waters. Additionally, bifenthrin can also cause sublethal toxic effects on various non-target organisms, including developmental toxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, oxidative damage, immune toxicity and endocrine disrupting effects. Here we review recent studies about the fate of bifenthrin in the environment and biological systems, the toxicity of the chiral parent compound bifenthrin and the toxic effects of main metabolites. The adverse effects of bifenthrin, identified from both in vitro and in vivo studies, and the potential underlying mechanisms are presented. We discuss the enantiomeric difference in the toxicological effects of bifenthrin, since enantiomers of chiral compounds show different interactions with biological systems. Pyrethroid insecticides metabolites are not acutely toxic, but they have sublethal toxicity, such as endocrine disrupting effects and immunotoxicity. We provide emerging evidence for toxic effects of several main metabolites.