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Cyclodextrin-based supramolecular assemblies: a versatile toolbox for the preparation of functional porous materials

Bleta, Rudina, Ponchel, Anne, Monflier, Eric
Environmental chemistry letters 2018 v.16 no.4 pp. 1393-1413
biocatalysis, biosensors, composite polymers, cyclodextrins, energy conversion, environmental technology, micelles, nonionic surfactants, oils, photocatalysis, porous media, sol-gel processing
The discovery of ordered mesoporous materials in 1992 by Mobil Oil Corporation scientists has opened great opportunities for new applications in many emerging fields such as heterogeneous catalysis, biocatalysis, energy conversion, biosensors, photocatalytic devices and environmental technologies. Porous materials are grouped by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) into three classes according to their pore diameter: microporous (< 2 nm), mesoporous (2–50 nm) and macroporous (> 50 nm). One of the most versatile methods for the preparation of those materials is the soft template approach which combines the sol–gel process with molecular self-assembly. While the micelles formed by ionic or nonionic surfactants, as well as amphiphilic polymers, have been extensively used as templates, the supramolecular assemblies formed between cyclodextrins and block copolymers have been less investigated, despite their large chemical and structural diversity. This review article focuses mainly on nanostructured porous inorganic materials derived from cyclodextrins or cyclodextrin-based assemblies. More than 100 references are described and discussed, in which we look both at their synthesis and characterization, as well as their applications in the emerging fields of heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. A special attention is paid to the evaluation of the critical parameters that need to be controlled for improving their (photo) catalytic performances.