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Investigation of binding characteristics of immobilized toll-like receptor 3 with poly(I:C) for potential biosensor application

Topping, Kristin D., Kelly, David G.
Analytical biochemistry 2019 v.564-565 pp. 133-140
Escherichia coli, Toll-like receptor 3, binding properties, biosensors, cross reaction, dissociation, double-stranded RNA, gold, innate immunity, ligands, manufacturing, pathogens, surface plasmon resonance
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pathogen recognition receptor of the innate immune response, recognizes and is activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is indicative of viral exposure. A sensor design exercise was conducted, using surface plasmon resonance detection, through the examination of several immobilization approaches for TLR3 as a biorecognition element (BRE) onto a modified gold surface. To examine the TLR3-dsRNA interaction a synthetic analogue mimic, poly (I:C), was used. The interaction binding characteristics were determined and compared to literature data to establish the optimal immobilization method for the TLR3 BRE. A preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of the selected TLR3 surface as a broad-spectrum viral biosensor was also performed. Amine-coupling was found to be the most reliable method for manufacturing repeatable and consistent TLR3 BRE sensor surfaces, although this immobilization schema is not tailored to place the receptor in a spatially-specific orientation. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) measured for this immobilized TLR3-poly (I:C) interaction was 117 ± 3.30 pM. This evaluation included a cross-reactivity study using a selection of purified E. coli and synthetic double- and single-stranded nucleic acids. The results of this design exercise and ligand binding study will inform future work towards the development of a broad-spectrum viral sensor device.