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Regulated chloroplast transcription termination

Ji, Daili, Manavski, Nikolay, Meurer, Jörg, Zhang, Lixin, Chi, Wei
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2019 v.1860 no.1 pp. 69-77
Arabidopsis, Cyanobacteria, DNA, DNA-directed RNA polymerase, chloroplast genes, chloroplasts, dissociation, gene expression, messenger RNA, phylogeny, transcription termination
Transcription termination by the RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a fundamental step of gene expression that involves the release of the nascent transcript and dissociation of the RNAP from the DNA template. However, the functional importance of termination extends beyond the mere definition of the gene borders. Chloroplasts originate from cyanobacteria and possess their own gene expression system. Plastids have a unique hybrid transcription system consisting of two different types of RNAPs of dissimilar phylogenetic origin together with several additional nuclear encoded components. Although the basic components involved in chloroplast transcription have been identified, little attention has been paid to the chloroplast transcription termination. Recent identification and functional characterization of novel factors in regulating transcription termination in Arabidopsis chloroplasts via genetic and biochemical approaches have provided insights into the mechanisms and significance of transcription termination in chloroplast gene expression. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the transcription termination in chloroplasts.