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Disinfection byproduct formation and toxicity of graphene oxide in water treatment system
- Liu, Mengmeng, Zhang, Min, Hao, Rongjie, Du, Tingting, Li, Tong, Li, Yao
- Chemosphere 2019 v.217 pp. 68-75
- aromatic compounds, bromides, bromination, byproducts, chlorination, digestion, disinfectants, disinfection, free radicals, graphene, graphene oxide, haloacetic acids, humans, irradiation, moieties, toxicity, wastewater treatment
- Graphene oxide (GO) is a structural analog of graphene and contains numerous O-containing functional groups. As rapidly increasing production and usage of GO, it is inevitable to flow into the water and wastewater treatment system and finally oxidized by disinfectants to form DBPs. Meanwhile, as GO is a nano sized carbon material, it may also break the human digestion system when it was absorbed by human body. This study explored the DBP formation when only GO was present. Effects of Br− were also considered during the DBP formation. Both trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were formed during the chlorination and chloramination procedure, but the total concentration of THMs was at least three times higher than that of HAAs. Irradiation can significantly enhance the DBP formation via the formation of radicals. The wrinkled appearance and decomposition of aromatic ring may both be effective on the DBP formation via chlorination or bromination. The findings of this study advance knowledge on the DBP formation of GO in water treatment systems and provide insight on the toxic effects of the transformation products of GO.