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Psidium guajava bioactive product chemical analysis and heavy metal toxicity reduction

Sobral – Souza, Celestina E., Silva, Ana R.P., Leite, Nadghia F., Rocha, Janaina E., Sousa, Amanda K., Costa, José G.M., Menezes, Irwin R.A., Cunha, Francisco A.B., Rolim, Larissa A., Coutinho, Henrique D.M.
Chemosphere 2019 v.216 pp. 785-793
Lactuca sativa, Psidium guajava, aluminum, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, chemical analysis, fungi, germination, heavy metals, iron, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, mercuric chloride, mercury, models, quercetin, secondary metabolites, toxicity
The present study had as its objective to verify the Psidium guajava var. Pomifera L. chelating, antioxidant and cytoprotective effects against mercury and aluminum. The ethanolic extract, tannic and flavonoid fractions were subjected to LC-MS analysis. The Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and ferric ion reduction demonstrated a present antioxidant activity. The fungicidal and bactericidal activity of these metals were established. After determining the sub-allelopathic doses, germination tests using Lactuca sativa were performed. Quercetin and its derivatives were the main compounds identified in the extract and the fractions. Mercury chloride significantly reduced the bactericidal effect of the flavonoid fraction (p < 0.001). None of the fractions were cytoprotective against mercury or aluminum in the fungal model assays. Using a sub-allelopathic concentration (64 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract, flavonoid and tannic fractions were found to be cytoprotective against aluminum for radicles, however only the tannic fraction was cytoprotective for caulicles. These data suggest that natural P. guajava products are promising cytoprotective compound sources. This activity may be related to the antioxidant effect of secondary metabolites, mainly flavonoids. Our results point to a potential for environmental intervention product and technique development aimed at mitigating contamination by toxic metals such as mercury and aluminum.