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Empirical assessing cement CO2 emissions based on China's economic and social development during 2001–2030

Wei, Junxiao, Cen, Kuang
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.653 pp. 200-211
carbon dioxide, cement, developing countries, emissions factor, energy, greenhouse gas emissions, industry, urbanization, China
Cement industry is a large emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2), taking up 5–8% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. China is the largest developing country in the world. With the fast urbanization rate, economic growth and rapid development of industry, China's cement production is soaring year by year. Also, cement CO2 emissions increased year by year and aroused the rising attention. However, the historical province- and nation-level cement production situations, driving forces of cement output and/or demand based on rapid economic growth and urbanization rate, the peak of cement consumption and China's cement demand projection and CO2 emissions through 2030 when China should fulfill the international commitments were not clear. The present study summarized the characteristics of China's cement production and CO2 emissions during 2001–2015, projected cement CO2 emission scenarios based on diffusion of alternative materials and technical innovation toward 2030. The following results were summarized, clinker- and cement- CO2 emission factors (EFs) were declining year by year with the technical innovation. CO2 emissions increased with the increase of cement output year by year. The discrepancies of CO2 emissions from different researches were becoming large year by year, and the biggest difference of CO2 emissions reached 49% in 2015. Accordingly, we recommended active EFs for the calculation of cement CO2 emissions. Cement production situation varies greatly with province, as manifested in unbalanced NSP technology and clinker-to-cement ratio, and energy consumption, which was primarily attributed to the unbalanced resource reserves and economic development. There is still sufficient room for CO2 reduction in China's cement industry, and the use of alternative material was better than technical innovation in such reduction. The optimal emissions in 2030 will be 1490 Mt CO2. And China's cement consumption will be stable in 2030, cumulative cement consumption per capita will be peaked at 23394 kg, and UR will reach 70.1%.