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Metabolic responses in the gills of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) exposed to salinity stress using NMR-based metabolomics

Jiang, Wenwen, Tian, Xiangli, Fang, Ziheng, Li, Li, Dong, Shuanglin, Li, Haidong, Zhao, Kun
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.653 pp. 465-474
Cynoglossus semilaevis, H+/K+-exchanging ATPase, H-transporting ATP synthase, aspartic acid, biochemical pathways, choline, creatine, energy, environmental factors, environmental science, euryhaline species, fish, gills, glutamic acid, metabolites, metabolomics, methionine, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, osmoregulation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, salinity, salt stress, taurine
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting fish physiology. Tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a euryhaline species that can survive in a wide range of salinity, and might be used as a promising model animal for environmental science. In this study, by using the nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics, amino acids analysis and real-time quantitative PCR assay, we investigated the metabolic responses in the gills and plasma of tongue sole subjected to hypo- (0 ppt, S0) and hyper-osmotic stress (50 ppt, S50) from isosmotic environment (30 ppt, S30). The results showed that the metabolic profiles of S50 were significantly different from those of S0 and S30 groups, and a clear overlap was found between the latter two groups. Ten metabolites were significantly different between the salt stress groups and the isosmotic group. Taurine and creatine elevated in both S0 and S50 groups. Choline decreased in S50 group while increased in S0 group. Amino acids and energy compounds were higher in the gills of S50 group. The metabolic network showed that ten metabolic pathways were all found in S50 group, while seven pathways were observed in S0 group. Meanwhile, the transcript levels of the Tau-T and ATP synthase in the gills increased with increasing salinity. Aspartate and methionine exhibited significant differences in the plasma among the groups, but did not show differences in the gills. Comparatively, glutamate exhibited significant differences both in the plasma and the gills. Overall, these findings provide a preliminary profile of osmotic regulation in euryhaline fish.