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How do glutathione antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status respond to air pollution exposure?

Farhat, Zeinab, Browne, Richard W., Bonner, Matthew R., Tian, Lili, Deng, Furong, Swanson, Mya, Mu, Lina
Environment international 2018 v.112 pp. 287-293
air pollution, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, blood serum, enzyme activity, females, games, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, males, models, sports, China
This study aims to investigate how antioxidant enzyme activity and overall antioxidant capacity respond to short-term changes in exposure to air pollution. 201 participants were recruited before- and followed up during- and after- the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Serum levels of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. We used linear mixed-effects models to compare changes in antioxidant enzymes across the three periods after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Among all participants, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels decreased by 12.0% when air pollution dropped by 50–60% during the Olympics and increased by 6.5% when air pollution levels rose after the Olympics. The magnitude of increase among males, smokers, and older individuals was relatively smaller compared to females, nonsmokers, and younger individuals. Among all participants, total antioxidant status (TAS) significantly decreased by 6.23% during the games and continued to decrease by 4.41% after the games. However, among females, nonsmokers, and younger participants, there was an increase in TAS response to the elevated air pollution levels. Our study observed strong responses in GPx and TAS levels to the short-term decrease and increase of air pollution levels and responses varied among subgroups.