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Headspace mode of liquid phase microextraction: A review

Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza, Mohebbi, Ali, Pazhohan, Azar, Khodadadeian, Fariba, Farajzadeh, Mir Ali
Trends in analytical chemistry 2019 v.110 pp. 8-14
chemical species, headspace analysis, liquid-phase microextraction
In recent years, liquid phase microextraction (LPME) as a solvent–minimized and microscale implementation of sample pretreatment procedure of liquid–liquid extraction has been introduced and obtained great attention among the researchers due to its simplicity, low cost, rapidity, and efficiency. Developments have led to different approaches of LPME such as headspace mode of liquid phase microextraction (HS mode of LPME) which is used in the cases of volatile and semi–volatile analytes. In HS mode of LPME, the extractant is suspended in the headspace of analytes solution and has no contact with the sample solution which leads to eliminate interferences problem. The present review discusses HS mode of LPME with the focus on its historical developments, principles, configurations, inherent limitations, and pros and cons. Herein, recent analytical applications of the method used in the isolation and trace enrichment prior to analysis of various compounds are reviewed. The future direction of the researches in this field and general trend toward the commercial applications are also considered.