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A retrospective epidemiological analysis of shared risk factors for bovine trichomoniasis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis in La Pampa province (Argentina)

Molina, L.L., Angón, E., García, A., Caballero-Villalobos, J., Giorgis, A.O., Moralejo, R.H., Perea, J.
Preventive veterinary medicine 2018 v.161 pp. 109-114
beef cattle, breeding, breeding season, bulls, campylobacteriosis, case-control studies, disease control, fences, financial economics, herds, mixed infection, regression analysis, risk factors, sexually transmitted diseases, trichomoniasis, veterinarians, Argentina
The venereal diseases bovine trichomoniasis (BT) and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC) cause economic losses in endemic areas like La Pampa province in Argentina, where beef cattle are usually managed extensively. The eradication of both diseases is a priority in Argentine. The aim of this case-control study was to identify shared and specific risk factors of both diseases from the data obtained from the Provincial Program for the Control and Eradication of BT and BGC in La Pampa (PCE). The study population included 5777 breeding beef herds tested for BT and BGC in 2013. The study comprised 3481 herds that were surveyed in situ by official PCE veterinarians, distributed as follows: 3159 negative herds (with no BT or BGC positive bulls), 121 BT case herds (with at least a BT positive bull), 170 BGC case herds (with at least a BGC positive bull) and 31 BT and BGC co-infected case herds (with at least a positive bull for each disease). Three multivariable analyses were performed in order to identify the risk factors using a logistic regression model. Results showed that the risk factors shared by both diseases were the number of bulls (OR for BT = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.04, p < 0.001; OR for BGC = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03, p < 0.001; OR for BT and BGC co-infection = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04, p = 0.003) and the presence in the previous year of each disease (OR for BT = 18.69, 95% CI: 11.82–29.57, p < 0.001; OR for BGC = 4.65, 95% CI: 3.18–6.81, p < 0.001; OR for BT and BGC co-infection = 39.18, 95% CI: 16.72–91.80, p < 0.001). Disease-specific risk factors were continuous breeding season for BT (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.04–2.47, p = 0.034), and inadequate condition of the fences for BGC (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06–2.15, p = 0.022). An integrated approach to venereal disease management needs to consider the risk characteristics identified in this study. This could lead to reduce both diseases and improve the efficiency of BT and BGC control activities in La Pampa.