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Fusarium dactylidis sp. nov., a novel nivalenol toxin-producing species sister to F. pseudograminearum isolated from orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) in Oregon and New Zealand

Aoki, Takayuki, Vaughan, Martha M., McCormick, Susan P., Busman, Mark, Ward, Todd J., Kelly, Amy, O’Donnell, Kerry, Johnston, Peter R., Geiser, David M.
Mycologia 2015 v.107 no.2 pp. 409-418
Dactylis glomerata, Fusarium, Fusarium head blight, Triticum aestivum, barley, beak, conidia, corn, crown rot, ear rot, etiological agents, forage grasses, head blight, new species, nivalenol, pathogenicity, sporodochia, taxon descriptions, wheat, zearalenone, New Zealand, Oregon
The B trichothecene toxin-producing clade (B clade) of Fusarium includes the etiological agents of Fusarium head blight, crown rot of wheat and barley and stem and ear rot of maize. B clade isolates also have been recovered from several wild and cultivated grasses, including Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass or cock’s foot), one of the world’s most important forage grasses. Two isolates from the latter host are formally described here as F. dactylidis. Phenotypically F. dactylidis most closely resembles F. ussurianum from the Russian Far East. Both species produce symmetrical sporodochial conidia that are similar in size and curved toward both ends. However, conidia of F. ussurianum typically end in a narrow apical beak while the apical cell of F. dactylidis is acute. Fusarium dactylidis produced nivalenol mycotoxin in planta as well as low but detectable amounts of the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone in vitro. Results of a pathogenicity test revealed that F. dactylidis induced mild head blight on wheat.