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An update to the fatty acid profiles of bovine retail milk in the United Kingdom: Implications for nutrition in different age and gender groups

Stergiadis, Sokratis, Berlitz, Carolina B., Hunt, Benjamin, Garg, Sneha, Ian Givens, D., Kliem, Kirsty E.
Food chemistry 2019 v.276 pp. 218-230
cattle, conjugated linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fat intake, fatty acid composition, gender, human health, milk, milk fatty acids, milk production, omega-3 fatty acids, palmitic acid, United Kingdom
This study investigated the effect of UK dairy production system, month, and their interaction, on retail milk fatty acid (FA) profile throughout the year. Milk samples (n = 120) from four conventional (CON), four organic (ORG) and two free-range (FR) brands were collected monthly. ORG milk had more nutritionally-desirable polyunsaturated FA, including rumenic acid and the omega-3 PUFA α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids, and less of the nutritionally-undesirable palmitic acid. Milk FA profile was similar between FR and CON systems, but FR milk had less saturated FA (SFA) and/or palmitic acid, and/or greater α-linolenic and rumenic acids in certain months within the peak-grazing season. According to the measured milk FA profiles and UK milk fat intakes, milk and dairy products contribute around one-third of the maximum recommended SFA intake. A small increased intake of beneficial PUFA may be expected by consuming ORG milk but human health implications from such differences are unknown.