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An update to the fatty acid profiles of bovine retail milk in the United Kingdom: Implications for nutrition in different age and gender groups
- Stergiadis, Sokratis, Berlitz, Carolina B., Hunt, Benjamin, Garg, Sneha, Ian Givens, D., Kliem, Kirsty E.
- Food chemistry 2019 v.276 pp. 218-230
- cattle, conjugated linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, fat intake, fatty acid composition, gender, human health, milk, milk fatty acids, milk production, omega-3 fatty acids, palmitic acid, United Kingdom
- This study investigated the effect of UK dairy production system, month, and their interaction, on retail milk fatty acid (FA) profile throughout the year. Milk samples (n = 120) from four conventional (CON), four organic (ORG) and two free-range (FR) brands were collected monthly. ORG milk had more nutritionally-desirable polyunsaturated FA, including rumenic acid and the omega-3 PUFA α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids, and less of the nutritionally-undesirable palmitic acid. Milk FA profile was similar between FR and CON systems, but FR milk had less saturated FA (SFA) and/or palmitic acid, and/or greater α-linolenic and rumenic acids in certain months within the peak-grazing season. According to the measured milk FA profiles and UK milk fat intakes, milk and dairy products contribute around one-third of the maximum recommended SFA intake. A small increased intake of beneficial PUFA may be expected by consuming ORG milk but human health implications from such differences are unknown.