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Antioxidant extracts of coffee leaves and its active ingredient 5-caffeoylquinic acid reduce chemically-induced inflammation in mice

Segheto, Luciana, Santos, Bruna Celeida Silva, Werneck, Ana Flávia Lawall, Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto, Sousa, Orlando Vieira de, Rodarte, Mírian Pereira
Industrial crops and products 2018 v.126 pp. 48-57
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Coffea arabica, Croton, active ingredients, agricultural wastes, animal models, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, butanol, ears, edema, enzyme activity, ethyl acetate, gallic acid, hexane, high performance liquid chromatography, histamine, histopathology, inflammation, inhibitory concentration 50, laboratory animals, leaves, lipid peroxidation, methanol, methylene chloride, mice, myeloperoxidase, oils, rutin, tissues, topical application
Leaves from Coffea arabica L. have been considered an agricultural residue of little value; however, these leaves are a potentially sustainable source of phenolic compounds. Investigation of the properties of these leaves is a crucial strategy for identifying agents that may be beneficial to the health. This study evaluates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts of C. arabica leaves and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) in a mouse model. Hexane (HFCAL), dichloromethane (DFCAL), ethyl acetate (EFCAL), and butanol (BFCAL) fractions were obtained by partition of the methanol extract (MECAL). High performance liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) and spectrophotometric methods were used to identify and quantify the chemical constituents. The antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Ear edema was induced in Swiss mice by the topical application of Croton oil, phenol, or histamine. Tissues were analyzed histopathologically, and myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activities were assessed. 5-CQA and mangiferin were identified in MECAL, EFCAL, and BFCAL. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 1.65 to 20.60 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g of extract and 0.26 to 14.96 g of rutin equivalents/100 g of extract, respectively. The content of 5-CQA ranged from 2.29 to 5.50 g/100 g of extract, while that of mangiferin was 1.46–4.00 g/100 g of extract. The IC50 values ranged from 7.47 ± 0.12 to 122.76 ± 1.38 μg/mL as determined by DPPH assay and from 4.67 ± 0.02 to 71.90 ± 0.22 μg/mL as determined by FRAP. The greatest inhibitor of lipid peroxidation was HFCAL (49.19 ± 1.10%). The MECAL and 5-CQA (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/ear) reduced the edema thickness and weight induced by croton oil and phenol. After histamine application, the edema thickness and weight were inhibited by MECAL but not by 5-CQA. Treatment with either MECAL or 5-CQA decreased inflammatory parameters and the activity of myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase. The results suggest that 5-CQA and extracts from coffee leaves (C. arabica) possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, indicating new possibilities for the treatment of disorders involving oxidative and cutaneous damage.