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High-resolution simulation of wintertime fossil fuel CO2 in Beijing, China: Characteristics, sources, and regional transport

Feng, Tian, Zhou, Weijian, Wu, Shugang, Niu, Zhenchuan, Cheng, Peng, Xiong, Xiaohu, Li, Guohui
Atmospheric environment 2019 v.198 pp. 226-235
atmospheric chemistry, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cities, emissions, fossil fuels, industry, mixing, mixing ratio, models, particulates, power plants, relative humidity, temperature, transportation, wind direction, wind speed, winter, China
In this study, a high-resolution simulation of fossil fuel CO2 in Beijing and surrounding areas, China, during January 2014 is performed to investigate the characteristics and sources of Beijing fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) mixing ratios and the impact of regional transport. The model reasonably reproduces the observed meteorological fields in the study domain, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. The simulated CO2 and CO mixing ratios in Beijing are in good agreement with the measurements. Elevated FFCO2 levels are produced by the model in megacities, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, and Baoding. The model result shows that FFCO2 mixing ratios are significantly correlated with observed total CO2, CO, and PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. Sensitivity experiments show that Beijing FFCO2 is mainly from industry and residential emissions (35% for each), followed by power plant (21%) and transportation (9%) emissions in January 2014. Spatially, the largest contributor for Beijing FFCO2 is the local source, and regional transport also plays an important role in winter. The impact of regional transport is associated with wind direction, in which south/east (north/west) wind tends to accumulate (dilute) Beijing FFCO2. In addition, the roles of regional transport during haze and clean episodes are significantly distinct in winter, and more contribution is found in haze episodes.