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Surveillance and genetic characterization of rotavirus strains circulating in four states of North Indian children

Islamuddin, Mohammad, Khan, Wajihul Hasan, Gupta, Shipra, Tiku, Vasundhara Razdhan, Khan, Naushad, Akdag, Ali Ilter, Chaudhary, Sanjeev, Upadhyay, Amit, Kumar, Praveen, Ghatwala, Geeta, Ray, Pratima
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2018 v.62 pp. 253-261
Rotavirus, burden of disease, children, death, diarrhea, disease severity, feces, gastroenteritis, genetic variance, genotype, infants, monitoring, morbidity, mortality, patients, polymerase chain reaction, vaccines, India
Acute gastroenteritis due to Rotavirus (RV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. In India, around 0.1 million death reported annually due to RV illness. So, to assess the disease burden continuous surveillance of the circulating genotypes is needed. This study aimed to ascertain the genetic variance of 429 rotavirus positive specimens observed during the period October 2013–September 2014 at four study centers from North India. Out of 1057 patients enrolled, 1018 stool samples were collected at four centers in four different states of North India. Children aged <5 years who showed the symptoms of severe diarrhea and needed hospitalization were enrolled. The stool samples collected were screened by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA), and the RV positive samples were characterized by semi-nested PCR. During the study period October 2013 through September 2014, ~42% patients were found to be rotavirus positive of 1018 collected specimen. In Delhi, Rohtak and Meerut, we observed that Rotavirus is seasonal compared to Tanda (HP). The rate of rotavirus detection was significantly higher among children aged below 2 years, and a total of 21.5% of rotavirus infections comprised children aged <6 months. Genotype G1(48.0%) was predominant and frequently circulating strain whereas G12 (16.8%) and G9 (10.0%) was second and third prevalent strain in the four states of North India. High frequency of G1 genotypes was detected under the age group of 6–11 months which is followed by G12, similarly high rate severe disease was observed due to G1 genotypes followed by P[8], P[6] and G12. The most common types of strains were G1P[8] (27.73% of strains), G12P[6] (13.28%), G9P[4] (7.23%) and G1P[6] (6.75%). The rare strain reported were G1P[9]; P[11] strain was detected in combination with G1, G2, and G12. These data emphasized G12 is the second most predominant strain circulating among Northern Indian children highlights the needs for inclusion in the future polyvalent vaccine to break the burden of rotavirus infection.