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Quantification of nitrogen in the liquid fraction and in vitro assessment of lysine bioavailability in the solid fraction of soybean meal hydrolysates Part B Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes

Luján-Rhenals, D., Morawicki, R., Shi, Z., Ricke, S. C.
Journal of environmental science and health 2018 v.53 no.1 pp. 12-17
ammonium, ammonium nitrogen, auxotrophs, beta-glucosidase, bioassays, bioavailability, biosynthesis, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, enzymatic treatment, essential amino acids, ethanol production, feeds, fermentation, hydrolysates, hydrolysis, in vitro studies, liquids, lysine, manufacturing, nitrogen, nitrogen compounds, protein sources, soybean meal, soybean oil, sugars, total nitrogen
Soybean meal (SBM) is a product generated from the manufacture of soybean oil and has the potential for use as a source of fermentable sugars for ethanol production or as a protein source for animal feeds. Knowing the levels of nitrogen available from ammonium is a necessary element of the ethanolic fermentation process while identifying the levels of essential amino acids such as lysine is important in determining usage as a feed source. As such the purpose of this study was to quantify total nitrogen and ammonium in the liquid fraction of hydrolyzed SBM and to evaluate total and bioavailable lysine in the solid fraction of the hydrolyzed SBM. The effects of acid concentration, cellulase and β-glucosidase on total and ammonium nitrogen were studied with analysis indicating that higher acid concentrations increased nitrogen compounds with ammonium concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 1.24 g L⁻¹ while enzymatic treatments did not significantly increase nitrogen levels. Total and bioavailable lysine was quantified by use of an auxotrophic gfpmut3 E.coli whole-cell bioassay organism incapable of lysine biosynthesis. Acid and enzymatic treatments were applied with lysine bioavailability increasing from a base of 82% for untreated SBM to up to 97%. Our results demonstrated that SBM has the potential to serve in ethanolic fermentation and as an optimal source essential amino acid lysine.