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Immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea and Pelargonium on the innate and adoptive immunity in calves
- Seckin, Cuneyt, Alpun Kalayci, Gamze, Turan, Nuri, Yilmaz, Aysun, Cizmecigil, Utku Y., Aydin, Ozge, Richt, Juergen A., Yilmaz, Huseyin
- Food and agricultural immunology 2018 v.29 no.1 pp. 744-761
- Echinacea, Pelargonium sidoides, adaptive immunity, blood, calves, gene expression, genes, immune response, immunoglobulin G, immunomodulators, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-4, lactoferrin, messenger RNA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
- Immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea purpurae and Pelargonium sidoides in calves were investigated. Sixty 25-day-old nonvaccinated calves living in integrated farm unit were randomly selected and were divided into 5 treatment groups consisting of 12 calves each; 4 groups were receiving different amounts and/or times of Echinacea and Pelargonium and the control group received placebo. Blood levels of γ-interferon, cytokine gene expression, lactoferrin and total IgG were analysed on days 0, 9, and 30. When levels for total IgG, γ-interferon, mRNAs for the γ-interferon, IL-1-β, IL-4 and the tumour necrosis factor-α genes were compared from days 0 to 9 post-treatment, significant differences were found between treated and non-treated calves using various amounts of Echinacea and Pelargonium; a doses of 250 mg Echinacea and 62.5 mg Pelargonium for 5 days seems to be ideal. Echinacea purpurae and Pelargonium sidoides are able to modulate immune functions in calves.