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Immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea and Pelargonium on the innate and adoptive immunity in calves

Seckin, Cuneyt, Alpun Kalayci, Gamze, Turan, Nuri, Yilmaz, Aysun, Cizmecigil, Utku Y., Aydin, Ozge, Richt, Juergen A., Yilmaz, Huseyin
Food and agricultural immunology 2018 v.29 no.1 pp. 744-761
Echinacea, Pelargonium sidoides, adaptive immunity, blood, calves, gene expression, genes, immune response, immunoglobulin G, immunomodulators, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-4, lactoferrin, messenger RNA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea purpurae and Pelargonium sidoides in calves were investigated. Sixty 25-day-old nonvaccinated calves living in integrated farm unit were randomly selected and were divided into 5 treatment groups consisting of 12 calves each; 4 groups were receiving different amounts and/or times of Echinacea and Pelargonium and the control group received placebo. Blood levels of γ-interferon, cytokine gene expression, lactoferrin and total IgG were analysed on days 0, 9, and 30. When levels for total IgG, γ-interferon, mRNAs for the γ-interferon, IL-1-β, IL-4 and the tumour necrosis factor-α genes were compared from days 0 to 9 post-treatment, significant differences were found between treated and non-treated calves using various amounts of Echinacea and Pelargonium; a doses of 250 mg Echinacea and 62.5 mg Pelargonium for 5 days seems to be ideal. Echinacea purpurae and Pelargonium sidoides are able to modulate immune functions in calves.