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First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum capsici on Passion Fruit in Taiwan

Chen, Y.-H., Huang, T.-P.
Plant disease 2018 v.102 no.12 pp. 2648
Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum truncatum, DNA primers, Glomerella cingulata, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, anthracnose, conidia, crops, cultivars, culture media, economic valuation, fruit quality, fruits, genetic databases, host plants, hybrids, internal transcribed spacers, leaves, markets, molecular cloning, mycelium, passion fruits, plant pathogenic fungi, ribosomal DNA, seedlings, sequence analysis, spraying, tissues, China, Florida, Taiwan
Passion fruit cultivar Tainung No. 1 (Passiflora edulis × P. edulis f. flavicarpa) is one of the most commercially important hybrids in Taiwan owing to its high yield, fruit quality, and self-compatibility. The fruits are of high economic value, and the seedlings have become important trading crops. In October 2017, passion fruits showing anthracnose symptoms and sunken lesions with acervuli were collected from the local market. Pure cultures were obtained by single spore isolation from the sporulating acervuli on the symptomatic tissues and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25°C. The colonies on PDA turned gray after 5 days and occasionally produced orange conidial masses. Conidia were falcate, fusiform, one-celled, aseptate, hyaline, and 26.02 ± 1.46 × 3.28 ± 0.14 μm. Mycelium plugs of the isolate Pafc1 were inoculated on the leaves of yellow passion fruit (P. edulis f. flavicarpa) and cultivar Tainung No. 1. Typical anthracnose symptoms appeared, and setose acervuli were observed on leaves of yellow passion fruit at 3 days postinoculation, whereas the acervuli were only produced when the leaves turned yellow. Similar results were also obtained by spraying a spore suspension (10⁵ spores/ml). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA of the isolate Pafc1 was amplified, cloned, and sequenced using primers ITS1 (5′-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3′) and ITS4 (5′-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3′). The ITS sequences of isolate Pafc1 were deposited in the GenBank database (accession no. MH060175) and showed 100% identity to that of Colletotrichum capsici (synonym Colletotrichum truncatum) strain Pas5 isolated from passion fruit in Florida (GenBank accession no. GU045515) (Tarnowski and Ploetz 2010). Neighbor-joining analysis using MEGA7 (Kumar et al. 2016) based on the sequences of ITS regions showed that the isolate Pafc1was clustered with C. capsici strain Pas5, C. capsici isolate Cc11, C. truncatum strain CBS:151.35, and C. truncatum strain CBS:170.59 with 100% bootstrap frequencies (Damm et al. 2009; Tarnowski and Ploetz 2010). C. capsici was reported to cause anthracnose on passion fruits in China (Zhuang 2001). Thirteen host plants, not including passion fruits, were infected by C. capsici and its synonym C. truncatum, causing anthracnose diseases in Taiwan (Yang 1990). C. gloeosporioides was known to be the causal agent of passion fruit anthracnose in Taiwan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. capsici causing anthracnose on passion fruit in Taiwan.