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Characteristics of Resistance to Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae in Avena fatua

Author:
Paczos-Grzeda, Edyta, Sowa, Sylwia, Koroluk, Aneta, Langdon, Tim
Source:
Plant disease 2018 v.102 no.12 pp. 2616-2624
ISSN:
0191-2917
Subject:
Avena fatua, Puccinia coronata, abiotic stress, biotic stress, breeding, chemical control, crown rust, cultivars, evolution, fungi, gene banks, genetic resistance, genotype, herbicide resistance, major genes, oats, pathogens, phenotype, races, resistance genes, seedlings, virulence, weeds
Abstract:
Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, is the most widespread and harmful fungal disease of oat. The best defense against the pathogen is use of cultivars with genetic resistance, which is effective, economic, and an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical control. However, the continuous evolution of the pathogen can rapidly overcome major gene resistance, creating an urgent need to identify new sources. Wild oat accessions have already proven to be valuable donors of many resistance genes, but the weed species Avena fatua remains underexploited. Its abundance across multiple environments and the frequent occurrence of herbicide-resistant populations demonstrate its ready ability to adapt to biotic and abiotic stresses; yet, surprisingly, there are no extensive studies which describe crown rust resistance occurrence in gene bank stocks of A. fatua. In this study, 204 accessions of A. fatua maintained in the collections of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Polish National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources were evaluated at the seedling stage for crown rust reaction using host–pathogen tests with five highly diverse and virulent races of P. coronata. Of tested genotypes, 85% showed a heterogeneous infection pattern, while 61% were susceptible or moderately susceptible to all races. Of the 79 resistant A. fatua accessions, seedling resistance to at least two P. coronata isolates was recognized within 19 accessions, with 13 displaying a homogeneously resistant phenotype to one or two races. Accessions showing multiple single seedling resistance to three or four isolates were observed. Based on the seedling reaction to isolates used in the study, 18 infection profiles (IP) were determined. Using UPGMA clustering, resistant accessions were divided into six main clusters encompassing samples with similar IPs. Twelve of 18 patterns allowed us to postulate the likely presence of novel crown rust resistance genes, whose origin was predominantly from Kenya or Egypt. Future work will clarify the genetic basis of the resistances observed here, as well as confirm their potential utility in breeding resistant oat cultivars.
Agid:
6219227