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Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus)

Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J., Kapczynski, Darrell R., DeJesus, Eric, Costa-Hurtado, Mar, Dauphin, Gwenaelle, Tripodi, Astrid, Dunn, John R., Swayne, David E.
Avian diseases 2016 v.60 no.1 pp. 22-32
Anas platyrhynchos, Influenza A virus, Meleagrid herpesvirus 1, Pekin, additive effect, avian influenza, death, ducks, genes, mortality, tissues, turkeys, vaccination, vaccines, viral load, viral shedding, virus replication, viruses, Vietnam
Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade reverse genetic (rgGD/ vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/ vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%–100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/ group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P < 0.05). Neither rHVT-H5/2.2 nor standard HVT vaccine could be detected in samples collected from multiple tissues at different time points, indicting minimal levels of viral replication. In conclusion, although a minor effect on survival was observed, this study demonstrates the suboptimal protection with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine given alone in Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a prime-boost regime.