U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Main content area

Genetic and phenotypic diversity within the Fusarium graminearum species complex in Norway

Aamot, H. U., Ward, T. J., Brodal, G., Vrålstad, T., Larsen, G. B., Klemsdal, S. S., Elameen, A., Uhlig, S., Hofgaard, I. S.
European journal of plant pathology 2015 v.142 no.3 pp. 501-519
15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium head blight, aggression, barley, chemotypes, deoxynivalenol, genetic variation, oats, phenotypic variation, population, population structure, spring wheat, temperature, Norway
As has been observed in several European countries, the frequency of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) has increased in Norwegian cereals in recent years, resulting in elevated levels of deoxynivalenol in cereal grains. The objective of this study was to determine if this increase was associated with changes in FGSC composition within Norway. FGSC isolates collected from wheat, oats and barley in Norway during two periods, mainly 1993–1998 and 2004–2007, were characterized to determine species and trichothecene genotype composition and to assess levels of genetic variation and population structure. In vitro growth rates at different temperatures and aggressiveness in spring wheat were further characterized for a sub-selection of isolates. All Norwegian isolates were identified as F. graminearum. The 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) trichothecene type was dominant. However, isolates with the 15-ADON chemotype were detected in Norway for the first time and may represent a recent introduction of this trichothecene type. Bayesian-model based clustering and analyses of genetic differentiation indicated the persistence over the last 20 years of two sympatric and partially admixed populations of F. graminearum in Norway. Significant differences in average in vitro growth rates and aggressiveness were observed between these two populations. Our results demonstrate that the recent increase in prevalence of the FGSC in Norwegian cereals do not correspond to any dramatic changes in FGSC species or trichothecene chemotype composition. However, significant changes in population frequencies were observed among Norwegian F. graminearum.