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Absorption, Metabolism, and Pharmacokinetics Profiles of Norathyriol, an Aglycone of Mangiferin, in Rats by HPLC-MS/MS
- Guo, Xiaozhen, Cheng, Mingcang, Hu, Pei, Shi, Zhangpeng, Chen, Shuoji, Liu, Huan, Shi, Haoyun, Xu, Zhou, Tian, Xiaoting, Huang, Chenggang
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2018 v.66 no.46 pp. 12227-12235
- absorption, arylsulfatase, beta-glucuronidase, bioavailability, glycosylation, hepatocytes, hydrolysis, mangosteens, medicinal plants, metabolites, methylation, pharmacokinetics, rats, sulfates, tandem mass spectrometry
- Norathyriol, an aglycone of mangiferin, is a bioactive tetrahydroxyxanthone present in mangosteen and many medicinal plants. However, the biological fate of norathyriol in vivo remains unclear. In this study, the absorption and metabolism of norathyriol in rats were evaluated through HPLC-MS/MS. Results showed that norathyriol was well absorbed, as indicated by its absolute bioavailability of 30.4%. Besides, a total of 21 metabolites of norathyriol were identified in rats, including methylated, glucuronidated, sulfated and glycosylated conjugates, which suggested norathyriol underwent extensive phase II metabolism. Among those metabolites, 15 metabolites were also identified in hepatocytes incubated with norathyriol, indicating the presence of hepatic metabolism. Furthermore, glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, rather than their parent compound, were found to be the main forms existing in vivo after administration of norathyriol, as implicated by the great increase of exposure of norathyriol determined after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase. The information obtained from this study contributes to better understanding of the pharmacological mechanism of norathyriol.