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Phylogenetic analysis reveals the origins of tetraploid and hexaploid species in the Japanese Lepisorus thunbergianus (Polypodiaceae) complex

Fujiwara, Tao, Serizawa, Shunsuke, Watano, Yasuyuki
Journal of plant research 2018 v.131 no.6 pp. 945-959
Lepisorus, alleles, allotetraploidy, chloroplast DNA, diploidy, hexaploidy, hybridization, hybrids, monophyly, new species, nucleotide sequences, races, tetraploidy, trees
The Japanese Lepisorus thunbergianus complex contains diploid and tetraploid races of L. thunbergianus and a hexaploid species, L. mikawanus. Here, we performed molecular phylogenetic analysis on this complex to delimit species and to elucidate the evolutionary origins of tetraploid and hexaploid species. Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) phylogeny supported the monophyly of the complex. Based on a single-copy nuclear gene (PgiC) tree, the tetraploid L. thunbergianus samples could be classified into two variants: an allotetraploid of hybrid origin between diploid L. thunbergianus and Japanese L. angustus and another allotetraploid of hybrid origin between diploid L. thunbergianus and an unknown diploid race of L. tosaensis. These variants can be recognized morphologically and distinguished from their parent species. Hence, here we described these allopolyploids as new species, L. nigripes and L. kuratae, respectively. The hexaploid species L. mikawanus has three types of PgiC alleles, each of which was derived from diploid L. thunbergianus, L. tosaensis, and Japanese L. angustus, while cpDNA shows that it is included in Japanese L. thunbergianus clade. Based on the cpDNA phylogeny and PgiC nucleotide sequences, we therefore concluded that L. mikawanus is an allohexaploid that originated through hybridization between tetraploid species, L. nigripes and an unknown ancestral diploid race of L. tosaensis.