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Cell free mitochondrial DNA in serum and milk associated with bovine mastitis: a pilot study

Leishangthem, Geeta Devi, Singh, Niraj Kumar, Singh, Nittin Dev, Filia, Gursimran, Singh, Amarjit
Veterinary research communications 2018 v.42 no.4 pp. 275-282
California mastitis test, blood serum, bovine mastitis, cytokines, domestic animals, epithelial cells, genes, inflammation, mammary glands, milk, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial genome, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, polymerase chain reaction, veterinary medicine
Mastitis is inflammation of mammary gland affecting all the species of domestic animals. Fragments of the mitochondrial genome released from dying cells are considered surrogate markers of mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that bovine mastitis would be associated with increased cell free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in serum and milk. Milk and serum samples were collected from sub-clinical mastitic and normal animals. Mastitis was confirmed by California mastitis test and bacterial isolation. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines were also estimated. Real time polymerase chain reaction was conducted in serum and milk from sub-clinical mastitic animals and compared with healthy animals targeting the mtDNA genes cytochrome b. Mastitis animals showed higher oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide along with higher level of inflammatory cytokines. Cell free mtDNA was significantly higher in serum and milk of mastitic animals comparing to that of healthy control. The higher cell free relative mtDNA content in mastitis animals indicates injury to the mammary epithelial cells and thereby releasing the mtDNA in the milk and blood. This mtDNA may be a bio-marker of oxidative stress and tissue injury in bovine mastitis.