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Analysis of a novel mutant allele of GSL8 reveals its key roles in cytokinesis and symplastic trafficking in Arabidopsis

Saatian, Behnaz, Austin, Ryan S., Tian, Gang, Chen, Chen, Nguyen, Vi, Kohalmi, Susanne E., Geelen, Danny, Cui, Yuhai
BMC plant biology 2018 v.18 no.1 pp. 295
1,3-beta-glucan synthase, Arabidopsis thaliana, alleles, beta-glucanase, biosynthesis, callose, cell walls, cellulose, cytokinesis, endopolyploidy, females, gametophytes, males, mutants, phenotype, plant development, plasmodesmata, seedlings
BACKGROUND: Plant cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides such as cellulose and callose. Callose exists at a very low level in the cell wall; however, it plays critical roles at different stages of plant development as well as in defence against unfavorable conditions. Callose is accumulated at the cell plate, at plasmodesmata and in male and female gametophytes. Despite the important roles of callose in plants, the mechanisms of its synthesis and regulatory properties are not well understood. RESULTS: CALLOSE SYNTHASE (CALS) genes, also known as GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE (GSL), comprise a family of 12 members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe a new allele of GSL8 (named essp8) that exhibits pleiotropic seedling defects. Reduction of callose deposition at the cell plates and plasmodesmata in essp8 leads to ectopic endomitosis and an increase in the size exclusion limit of plasmodesmata during early seedling development. Movement of two non-cell-autonomous factors, SHORT ROOT and microRNA165/6, both required for root radial patterning during embryonic root development, are dysregulated in the primary root of essp8. This observation provides evidence for a molecular mechanism explaining the gsl8 root phenotype. We demonstrated that GSL8 interacts with PLASMODESMATA-LOCALIZED PROTEIN 5, a β-1,3-glucanase, and GSL10. We propose that they all might be part of a putative callose synthase complex, allowing a concerted regulation of callose deposition at plasmodesmata. CONCLUSION: Analysis of a novel mutant allele of GSL8 reveals that GSL8 is a key player in early seedling development in Arabidopsis. GSL8 is required for maintaining the basic ploidy level and regulating the symplastic trafficking. Callose deposition at plasmodesmata is highly regulated and occurs through interaction of different components, likely to be incorporated into a callose biosynthesis complex. We are providing new evidence supporting an earlier hypothesis that GSL8 might have regulatory roles apart from its enzymatic function in plasmodesmata regulation.