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Assessment of atrazine decontamination by epiphytic root bacteria isolated from emergent hydrophytes

James, Anina, Singh, Dileep Kumar
Annals of microbiology 2018 v.68 no.12 pp. 953-962
Acorus calamus, Arthrobacter, Phragmites, Pseudomonas, Typha latifolia, aquatic plants, atrazine, bacteria, biomass, bioreactors, decontamination, environmental factors, epiphytes, liquids, mutualism, pH, remediation, temperature, water treatment
Aim of the study was to identify atrazine remediating bacteria that can potentially succeed in situ where they encounter varied environmental conditions. Three epiphytic root bacteria, genus Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter, were isolated from rhizoplanes of hydrophytes Acorus calamus, Typha latifolia, and Phragmites karka. Potential of these strains to decontaminate environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine was determined in liquid atrazine medium (LAM) and Luria-Bertani (LB) medium at varying pH and temperature. There was an increase in decontamination by the strains with time upon exposure to 2.5 to 10 mg l⁻¹ atrazine over a period of 15 days, notably, in both minimal and nutrient-rich media. Growth in terms of O.D.₆₀₀ and biomass determined during the same period also showed a corresponding surge. Pseudomonas sp. strain AACB mitigated atrazine in a wide range of pH (5 to 8). Pseudomonas sp. strains AACB and TTLB decontaminated > 62% atrazine at 10 °C. All the strains exhibited plant growth–promoting traits in vitro, reported for the first time in the presence of atrazine. Strain AACB exhibits the novel trait of atrazine decontamination under harsh environmental conditions mimicked in lab. Strains isolated in the present study promise success in in situ remediation. Bioreactors and water treatment plants can be designed comprising the hydrophytes and the strains inoculated into their rhizospheres to improve efficacy of the treatment. They can be used to study plant-bacterium mutualistic symbiosis or other interactions occurring during atrazine mitigation.