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Micro- and nano-capsulated fungal pectinase with outstanding capabilities of eliminating turbidity in freshly produced juice

Mahmoud, Khaled F, Abo-Elmagd, Heba I, Housseiny, Manal M
Trichoderma, acidity, encapsulation, fungi, hydrolysis, orange juice, pasteurization, pectins, polygalacturonase, polymers, sodium alginate, temperature, transmission electron microscopy, turbidity, viscosity
The present study aimed to compare the pectinase forms produced from Trichoderma viride—free, micro-capsule, and nano-capsule—in sodium alginate to analyze the pectin that causes the turbidity of orange juice. This was performed along with an estimation of viscosity, residual of pectin, and turbidity. The extracted and purified enzyme was 24.35-fold better than that of the crude enzyme. After application of free one, it loses most of the activity on low degrees of acidity and remains constant on the temperatures of pasteurization. Therefore, the tested enzyme was encapsulated by two different ways using the same polymer. The morphology of the three pectinase forms was obtained by transmission electron microscopy, and the micrographs clearly showed the pores on the surface of sodium alginate matrix after encapsulation. The size of the wall (sodium alginate) ranged from 3.24 to 3.76 µm diameter but was 3.15 µm for core of enzyme. Micro-capsuled and nano-capsuled pectinase can be used in the hydrolysis of pectic substances in orange juice with natural ways and maintaining the quality of final product. Consequently, the cost of juice clarifying can be reduced due to reusing the enzyme several times.