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A Comparison of the Levels of Oil, Carotenoids, and Lipolytic Enzyme Activities in Modern Lines and Hybrids of Grain Sorghum

Robert A. Moreau, Andrew F. Harron, Michael J. Powell, Jonathan L. Hoyt
journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2016 v.93 no.4 pp. 569-573
Sorghum (Poaceae), biofuels, chemists, corn, enzyme activity, enzymes, free fatty acids, genotype, grain sorghum, hybrids, industrial applications, lipid content, lutein, oils, seeds, zeaxanthin
Carotenoids are potentially valuable components in grain sorghum and there is a need to better understand their concentration, composition, and value. Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and analyzed and the levels of oil and carotenoids were compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids and the levels of total carotenoids ranged from 3.82 to 19.5 ppm in the oil, which was much lower than the levels of total carotenoids in two yellow corn samples (70.8 and 103 ppm). Lipolytic enzyme activity was estimated by storing milled kernel samples for 2 weeks at 25 °C and measuring the levels of total free fatty acids. After 2 weeks, the levels of free fatty acids in the oil of the eighteen sorghum samples ranged from 11.49 and 52.17 wt%, compared to 10.29 and 17.54 wt% in oil from the two corn samples. This new data will be useful for persons using grain sorghum for food, biofuels and other industrial applications. Examples of sorghum genotypes with high and low levels of carotenoids and high and low levels of lipolytic enzymes were both identified.