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Diversity and bioprospection of fungal community present in oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica

Godinho, Valéria M., Gonçalves, Vívian N., Santiago, Iara F., Figueredo, Hebert M., Vitoreli, Gislaine A., Schaefer, Carlos E. G. R., Barbosa, Emerson C., Oliveira, Jaquelline G., Alves, Tânia M. A, Zani, Carlos L., Junior, Policarpo A. S., Murta, Silvane M. F., Romanha, Alvaro, Kroon, Erna Geessien, Cantrell, Charles L., Wedge, David E., Duke, Stephen O., Ali, Abbas, Rosa, Carlos A., Rosa, Luiz H.
Extremophiles 2015 v.19 no.3 pp. 585-596
Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Hypocreales, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Pseudogymnoascus, antibacterial properties, anticarcinogenic activity, antifungal properties, antiparasitic properties, antiviral properties, biopesticides, climate change, climate models, drugs, extremophiles, fungal communities, herbicidal properties, monitoring, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, phylogeny, secondary metabolites, soil, soil biology, soil fungi, Antarctic region, Antarctica
We surveyed the diversity and capability of producing bioactive compounds from a cultivable fungal community isolated from the cold-arid, oligotrophic soil of continental Antarctica. A total of 115 fungal isolates were obtained and identified in 11 taxa of Aspergillus, Debaryomyces, Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus, Penicillium and Hypocreales. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that taxa of the genera Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus and Hypocreales may represent three new fungal species. The fungal community showed low diversity and richness, and high dominance indices. All fungal isolates were cultured, and extracts of Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium allii-sativi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium rubens possessed antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumoral, herbicidal and antiprotozoal activities. Bioactive extracts were examined using 1H NMR detected the presence of secondary metabolites with interesting chemical shifts. Our results show that the fungi present in cold-oligotrophic soil from Antarctica included few dominant species, which may have important implications for understanding eukaryotic survival in cold-arid oligotrophic soils. We hypothesize that detailed further investigations may provide a greater understanding of the evolution of Antarctic fungi and their relationships with other organisms described in that region. Monitoring these unique fungal communities over time might also be useful as a model of climate changes in Antarctica. Additionally, different wild pristine bioactive fungal isolates found in continental Antarctic soil may represent a unique source to discover prototype molecules for use in drug and biopesticide discovery studies.