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Recessive Resistance to Bean common mosaic virus Conferred by the bc-1 and bc-2 Genes in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Affects Long-Distance Movement of the Virus

Feng, Xue, Orellana, Gardenia E., Myers, James R., Karasev, Alexander V.
Phytopathology 2018 v.108 no.8 pp. 1011-1018
Bean common mosaic necrosis virus, Bean common mosaic virus, Phaseolus vulgaris, alleles, beans, cultivars, gene expression, leaves, mechanism of action, resistance genes, viruses
Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is governed by four genes that include one strain-nonspecific helper gene bc-u, and three strain-specific genes bc-1, bc-2, and bc-3. The bc-3 gene was identified as an eIF4E translation initiation factor gene mediating resistance through disruption of the interaction between this protein and the VPg protein of the virus. The mode of action of bc-1 and bc-2 in expression of BCMV resistance is unknown, although bc-1 gene was found to affect systemic spread of a related potyvirus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. To investigate the possible role of both bc-1 and bc-2 genes in replication, cell-to-cell, and long-distance movement of BCMV in P. vulgaris, we tested virus spread of eight BCMV isolates representing pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII in a set of bean differentials expressing different combinations of six resistance alleles including bc-u, bc-1, bc-1², bc-2, bc-2², and bc-3. All studied BCMV isolates were able to replicate and spread in inoculated leaves of bean cultivars harboring bc-u, bc-1, bc-1², bc-2, and bc-2² alleles and their combinations, while no BCMV replication was found in inoculated leaves of cultivar IVT7214 carrying the bc-u, bc-2, and bc-3 genes, except for isolate 1755a, which was capable of overcoming the resistance conferred by bc-2 and bc-3. In contrast, the systemic spread of all BCMV isolates from pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII was impaired in common bean cultivars carrying bc-1, bc-1², bc-2, and bc-2² alleles. The data suggest that bc-1 and bc-2 recessive resistance genes have no effect on the replication and cell-to-cell movement of BCMV, but affect systemic spread of BCMV in common bean. The BCMV resistance conferred by bc-1 and bc-2 and affecting systemic spread was found only partially effective when these two genes were expressed singly. The efficiency of the restriction of the systemic spread of the virus was greatly enhanced when the alleles of bc-1 and bc-2 genes were combined together.