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Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality1

Mukti Singh, Jeffrey A. Byars, Sean X. Liu
Journal of food science 2015 v.80 no.6 pp. E1229
polyphenols, sage, lipid peroxidation, wheat, lipids, rosmarinic acid, emulsions, sensory evaluation, animals, viscosity, starch, cakes, Salvia officinalis, navy beans, leaves, tea, principal component analysis, baking quality, gluten-free foods, baking, antioxidants, supercritical fluid extraction, batters, leaf extracts, whole wheat flour, rheology, particle size, protein content
Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten‐free cakes.