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Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea: Interactions with Native Vineyard Yeasts from Washington State

Wang, Xuefei, Glawe, Dean A., Kramer, Elizabeth, Weller, David, Okubara, Patricia A.
Phytopathology 2018 v.108 no.6 pp. 691-701
Aureobasidium pullulans, Botrytis cinerea, Candida saitoana, Malus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Vitis, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, antibiosis, apples, biological control, biological control agents, boscalid, flavor, grapes, growers, metabolomics, mouthfeel, multilocus sequence typing, odors, pyraclostrobin, small fruits, triflumizole, vineyards, virulence, wines, yeasts, Washington (state)
Native yeasts are of increasing interest to researchers, grape growers, and vintners because of their potential for biocontrol activity and their contributions to the aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel qualities of wines. To assess biocontrol activity, we tested 11 yeasts from Washington vineyards, representing isolates of Candida saitoana, Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, M. pulcherrima, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, for ability to colonize Thompson Seedless grape berries, inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and suppress disease symptoms on isolated berries. The yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was also included based on its known biocontrol activity against B. cinerea in studies on apple and grape. All yeast strains multiplied rapidly in grape berries and reached densities of over log 6 cells per wound as early as 2 days after inoculation with 200 cells. One of the Botrytis isolates used in this study was much less virulent than the others and was provisionally identified as B. prunorum based on multilocus sequence analysis. Suppression of the growth of B. cinerea isolates 111bb, 207a, 207cb, and 407cb occurred on berries treated with A. pullulans P01A006, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae P34A004 and P40A002, M. pulcherrima P01A016 and P01C004, Meyerozyma guilliermondii P34D003, and S. cerevisiae HNN11516. Inhibition of Botrytis isolates by the yeast strains was more common on berries than in vitro, suggesting the possibility that niche competition was a more likely biocontrol mechanism than antibiosis in planta. Metabolic profiling of yeast strains and B. cinerea isolates using Biolog YT plates revealed seven distinct metabolic groups. Furthermore, the yeast strains showed partial to complete tolerance to the commonly used fungicides fluopyram, triflumizole, metrafenone, pyraclostrobin, and boscalid. Implications of these findings for field deployment of native Washington yeasts as biocontrol agents against B. cinerea are discussed.