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Insulin Mimetic Activity of 3,4-Seco and Hexanordammarane Triterpenoids Isolated from Gynostemma longipes

Pham, Ha Thanh Tung, Ha, Thi Kim Quy, Cho, Hyo Moon, Lee, Ba Wool, An, Jin Pyo, Tran, Van On, Oh, Won Keun
Journal of natural products 2018 v.81 no.11 pp. 2470-2482
Gynostemma, adipocytes, chemical composition, ethanol, glucose, glucose transporters, glycosides, hypoglycemic agents, insulin, medicinal plants, mice, myoblasts, signal transduction, spectroscopy, triterpenoids, Vietnam
As part of ongoing research to find new antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants, the chemical composition of Gynostemma longipes, an ethnomedicinal plant used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by local communities in Vietnam, was investigated. Ten new dammarane triterpenes, including two 3,4-seco-dammarane analogues, secolongipegenins S1 and S2 (1 and 2), a 3,4-seco-hexanordammarane, secolongipegenin S3 (3), two hexanordammarane glycosides, longipenosides ND1 and ND2 (4 and 5), and five other dammarane glycosides, longipenosides GL1–GL5 (6–10), were isolated from a 70% EtOH extract of the whole G. longipes plant. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using diverse spectroscopic methods. All of the isolates were evaluated for their stimulatory activities on glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells using 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose as a fluorescent-tagged glucose probe. The stimulant activities on glucose uptake by the test compounds were mediated via the activation of the AMPK pathway using differentiated mouse C2C12 skeletal myoblasts. Consequently, compounds 1, 2, and 4 enhanced glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation significantly by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway.