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Natural and synthetic peptides in the cardiovascular diseases: An update on diagnostic and therapeutic potentials

Grieco, Paolo, Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel
Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2019 v.662 pp. 15-32
angiotensin II, atherosclerosis, biomarkers, blood, blood pressure, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, natriuretic peptides, patients, receptors, serotonin, synthetic peptides, therapeutics, vasodilator agents
Several peptides play an important role in physiological and pathological conditions into the cardiovascular system. In addition to well-known vasoactive agents such as angiotensin II, endothelin, serotonin or natriuretic peptides, the vasoconstrictor Urotensin-II (Uro-II) and the vasodilators Urocortins (UCNs) and Adrenomedullin (AM) have been implicated in the control of vascular tone and blood pressure as well as in cardiovascular disease states including congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary and systemic hypertension. Therefore these peptides, together with their receptors, become important therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Circulating levels of these agents in the blood are markedly modified in patients with specific CVDs compared with those in healthy patients, becoming also potential biomarkers for these pathologies. This review will provide an overview of current knowledge about the physiological roles of Uro-II, UCN and AM in the cardiovascular system and their implications in cardiovascular diseases. It will further focus on the structural modifications carried out on original peptide sequences in the search of analogues with improved physiochemical properties as well as in the delivery methods. Finally, we have overviewed the possible application of these peptides and/or their precursors as biomarkers of CVDs.