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Active immunization using hand-push emulsification method increases the operator's risk of transcutaneous immunization

Yin, Xiaochen, Zhang, Suli, Zhou, Zhen, Bian, Jingwei, Wu, Ye, Wang, Pengli, Gong, Yulin, Bai, Lina, Hao, Weiwei, Ma, Xinliang, Liu, Huirong
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.506 no.4 pp. 970-975
adjuvants, aerosols, angiotensin II, animal models, animals, antigens, autoantibodies, clinical examination, emulsifying, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fur, gloves, immunization, pathogens, permeability, receptors, risk
Setting up an animal model by using active immunization methods is a common means of studying immune-related diseases or producing antibodies with high titer and high activities. However, the security during the process of pathogen emulsification remains unclear. In a physical examination, we unexpectedly noticed high levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA) specific to the immunizing antigen in the sera of some researchers who had participated in setting up active immunization animal models, and we were puzzled about the cause of AT1-AA production. In this study, we intended to investigate whether the emulsified antigen was the source of infection in these researchers, and if so, how to prevent it from occurring.AT1-AA was detected by advanced ELISA method. The participants presented higher levels of AT1-AA compared with non-participants of the same laboratory. This phenomenon remained that some factors during the process of rat model establishment may contribute to AT1-AA production. Animal and glove penetration studies indicated the emulsified antigen infection was attributed to neither aerosol or fur touch nor penetrating through gloves. However, AT1-AA level was largely decreased in the participants after they used an automatic emulsification device. Because of the strong permeability of the adjuvant, we speculated that emulsified antigen might get access to the unprotected skin of the participants accidentally during the immunization process.These results demonstrated that accidental contacts of emulsified antigens may infect researchers during the process of traditional hand-push emulsification, resulting in high specific autoantibody levels, which can be prevented by using appropriate tools.