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Functional characterization of natural variants found on the major stress inducible 70-kDa heat shock gene, HSPA1A, in humans

Oliverio, Ryan, Nguyen, Peter, Kdeiss, Brianna, Ord, Sara, Daniels, Amanda J., Nikolaidis, Nikolas
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.506 no.4 pp. 799-804
adenosine triphosphate, apoptosis, calorimetry, dissociation, entropy, genes, heat shock proteins, humans, hydrolysis, luciferase, mutants, single nucleotide polymorphism, titration
In this report, we investigated the effects of natural single nucleotide polymorphisms on the function of HSPA1A, the major stress-inducible Hsp70 gene in humans. We first established that all mutant proteins retain their ability to hydrolyze ATP, but three of them had a significantly lower rate of ATP hydrolysis as compared to the wild-type (WT) protein. We also used Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and found that although all mutants bind to protein substrate with dissociation constants similar to the WT protein, four of them had increased reaction entropies. We also tested whether these mutations affect the ability of HSPA1A to refold heat-denatured luciferase. These assays revealed that one mutation resulted in significantly lower levels while a second one resulted in higher levels of the refolded enzyme. We then determined whether the mutations affected the ability of HSPA1A to prevent apoptosis caused by poly-glutamine carrying huntingtin proteins. This assay determined that three of the mutations caused increased cell apoptosis as compared to the WT. Our results reveal that although none of these naturally occurring mutations exists on positions of known function, some alter the molecular chaperone activities of HSPA1A most probably by affecting the allosteric communication between its two major domains.