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Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor enhances load-induced muscle hypertrophy in mice

Ohashi, Maiko, Okubo, Kazumasa, Mizuno, Sakiko, Yoda, Masaki, Shirasawa, Hideyuki, Chiba, Kazuhiro, Horiuchi, Keisuke, Matsumoto, Morio, Nakamura, Masaya
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2018 v.506 no.4 pp. 944-949
apoptosis, bone marrow, cardiomyocytes, cell lines, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, hematopoietic stem cells, hypertrophy, mice, mitogenesis, models, muscles, mutants, myotubes, patients, phosphorylation, receptors, sarcopenia, skeletal muscle
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine crucially involved in the regulation of granulopoiesis and the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow. However, emerging data suggest that G-CSF exhibits more diverse functions than initially expected, such as conferring protection against apoptosis to neural cells and stimulating mitogenesis in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle stem cells after injury. In the present study, we sought to investigate the potential contribution of G-CSF to the regulation of muscle volume. We found that the administration of G-CSF significantly enhances muscle hypertrophy in two different muscle overload models. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of both G-CSF and G-CSF receptors in the muscles that were under overload stress. Using mutant mice lacking the G-CSF receptor, we confirmed that the anabolic effect is dependent on the G-CSF receptor signaling. Furthermore, we found that G-CSF increases the diameter of myotubes in vitro and induces the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and ERK1/2 in the myoblast-like cell line C2C12 after differentiation induction. These findings indicate that G-CSF is involved in load-induced muscle hypertrophy and suggest that G-CSF is a potential agent for treating patients with muscle loss and sarcopenia.