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Extracellular αB-crystallin modulates the inflammatory responses

Guo, Yong-shun, Liang, Pei-zhou, Lu, Shen-zhao, Chen, Rong, Yin, Yan-qing, Zhou, Jia-wei
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019 v.508 no.1 pp. 282-288
astrocytes, autocrine signaling, cell lines, exosomes, heat shock proteins, inflammation, mice, neurodegenerative diseases, sclerosis
Neuroinflammation is considered a challenging clinical problem. Chronic inflammatory responses play important roles in the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies have shown that astrocytes express small heat shock protein αB-crystallin (CRYAB) which is capable of inhibiting inflammatory responses in astrocytes per se. However, the underlying mechanisms of CRYAB-induced modulation of neuroinflammation are still not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of extracellular CRYAB in the interaction between microglia and astrocytes in the context of MS-associated neuroinflammation. We found that the expression of CRYAB was profoundly increased in EAE mice. CRYAB was preferentially expressed in astrocytes and could be secreted via exosomes. Levels of exosomal CRYAB secreted from astrocytes were markedly increased under stress conditions. Furthermore, incubation of immortalized astrocytes or microglia cell lines with CRYAB remarkably suppressed astrocytes and microglia-mediated inflammatory responses in both autocrine and paracrine manners. Our results reveal a novel function for extracellular CRYAB in the regulation of neuroinflammation. Targeting extracellular CRYAB-modulated neuroinflammation is a potential therapeutic intervention for MS.