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A novel splicing mutation in the ABCA1 gene, causing Tangier disease and familial HDL deficiency in a large family

Maranghi, Marianna, Truglio, Gessica, Gallo, Antonio, Grieco, Elvira, Verrienti, Antonella, Montali, Anna, Gallo, Pietro, Alesini, Francesco, Arca, Marcello, Lucarelli, Marco
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019 v.508 no.2 pp. 487-493
ABC transporters, amino acids, apoproteins, exons, heterozygosity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, introns, mutation, nucleotides, patients, phenotype, protein metabolism, stop codon
Tangier disease is a rare disorder of lipoprotein metabolism that presents with extremely low levels of HDL cholesterol and apoprotein A-I. It is caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene. Clinical heterogeneity and mutational pattern of Tangier disease are poorly characterized. Moreover, also familial HDL deficiency may be caused by mutations in ABCA1 gene.ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene mutations in a patient with Tangier disease, who presented an uncommon clinical history, and in his family were found and characterized. He was found to be compound heterozygous for two intronic mutations of ABCA1 gene, causing abnormal pre-mRNAs splicing. The novel c.1510-1G > A mutation was located in intron 12 and caused the activation of a cryptic splice site in exon 13, which determined the loss of 22 amino acids of exon 13 with the introduction of a premature stop codon. Five heterozygous carriers of this mutation were also found in proband's family, all presenting reduced HDL cholesterol and ApoAI (0.86 ± 0.16 mmol/L and 92.2 ± 10.9 mg/dL respectively), but not the typical features of Tangier disease, a phenotype compatible with the diagnosis of familial HDL deficiency. The other known mutation c.1195-27G > A was confirmed to cause aberrant retention of 25 nucleotides of intron 10 leading to the insertion of a stop codon after 20 amino acids of exon 11. Heterozygous carriers of this mutation also showed the clinical phenotype of familial HDL deficiency.Our study extends the catalog of pathogenic intronic mutations affecting ABCA1 pre-mRNA splicing. In a large family, a clear demonstration that the same mutations may cause Tangier disease (if in compound heterozygosis) or familial HDL deficiency (if in heterozygosis) is provided.