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Adipose mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes ameliorate hypoxia/serum deprivation-induced osteocyte apoptosis and osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro

Ren, Lin, Song, Zi-jun, Cai, Qing-wei, Chen, Rui-xin, Zou, Yang, Fu, Qiang, Ma, Yuan-yuan
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019 v.508 no.1 pp. 138-144
acid phosphatase, age, apoptosis, blood serum, bone marrow, bone resorption, caspase-3, caspase-9, cell lines, cytochrome c, exosomes, genes, hypoxia, mesenchymal stromal cells, messenger RNA, models, monocytes, osteoclasts, protein content, staining, therapeutics
Age-related skeletal changes is closely associated with imbalanced bone remodeling characterized by elevated osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast activation. Since osteocytes are the commander of bone remodeling, attenuating increased osteocyte apoptosis may improve age-related bone loss. Exosomes, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, hold promising potential for cell-free therapy due to multiple abilities, such as promoting proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. We aimed to explore the effect of exosomes derived from adipose mesenchymal stem cell (ADSCs-exo) on osteocyte apoptosis and osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 was used as a model, and apoptosis was induced by hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD). Our results showed that ADSCs-exo noticeably reduced H/SD-induced apoptosis in MLO-Y4 cells via upregulating the radio of Bcl-2/Bax, diminishing the production of reactive oxygen species and cytochrome c, and subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Additionally, ADSCs-exo lowered the expression of RANKL both at the mRNA and protein levels, as well as the ratio of RANKL/OPG at the gene level. As determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, reduced osteoclastogenesis was further validated in bone marrow monocytes cultured under conditioned medium from exosome-treated MLO-Y4. Together, ADSCs-exo could antagonize H/SD induced osteocyte apoptosis and osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis, indicating the therapeutic potential of ADSCs-exo in age-related bone disease.