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Evidences against vesicle-dependent trafficking and involvement of extracellular proteasomes into cell-to-cell communications

Diakonov, Egor E., Selenina, Anastasiia V., Tomilin, Alexey N., Tsimokha, Anna S.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019 v.508 no.2 pp. 368-373
cell communication, exosomes, human cell lines, human diseases, humans, patients, proteasome endopeptidase complex, proteolysis, ubiquitin
The ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in the regulation of most basic intracellular processes, and deregulation of this system can results in certain kinds of human diseases. Proteolytic core this system, the 20S proteasome, has been found in physiological fluids of both healthy humans and patients suffering from a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. The concentration of these extracellular proteasomes has been found to correlate with the diseased state, being of a prognostic significance. The transport mechanisms and functions of these proteasomes, however, are largely unclear. Previous studies revealed that the transport of extracellular proteasomes may occur via microvesicles and exosomes, which led to the hypothesis that extracellular proteasomes are implicated in cell-to-cell communication process. Here we show that microvesicles and exosomes, two major known types of intercellular vehicles, contain no detectable proteasomes. Moreover, neither affinity purified nor naturally released into conditioned medium by donor cells 20S proteasomes could penetrate recipient HeLa cells. Taken together, these results suggest that extracellular proteasomes are unlikely to be involved in the cell-to-cell communication and that their release by cells serve other biological purposes.