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Virulence structure of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici and its genetic diversity by ISSR and SRAP profiling analyses

Na Liu, Z Lewis Liu, Z. Lewis Liu, Guoshu Gong, Min Zhang, Xu Wang, You Zhou, Xiaobo Qi, Huabao Chen, Jizhi Yang, Peigao Luo, Chunping Yang
Plos One 2015 v.10 no.6 pp. e0130881
Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Meishan, alleles, breeding, cluster analysis, cultivars, disease control, disease resistance, gene flow, genetic distance, genetic relationships, genetic variation, host plants, immune response, microsatellite repeats, monitoring, plant pathogenic fungi, powdery mildew, virulence, wheat, China
Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is an obligate biotrophic pathogen causing wheat powdery mildew that has a great genetic flexibility and variations in relationship to its host plant. Application of disease resistant cultivars is an essential disease management measurement. Due to its rapid adaptation in overcoming plant resistance on a gene-to-gene basis, monitoring virulence structure and genetic variations of pathogenic populations are necessary for an effective disease resistance breeding program. This study investigated 17 pathogenic populations in Sichuan, China and classified 109 isolates into two distinguished groups of HV (high virulence, 92 isolates) and LV (low virulence, 17 isolates) groups. A relatively lower frequency of virulence gene was found in populations of Yibin (South region), Xichang (West region), and Meishan (Middle region). Many previously known resistant genes were found to lose resistance and only Pm13, Pm5b, Pm2+6, and PmXBD remained their resistant function. Resistance gene Pm21 displayed an immune response to pathogenic challenges against all populations in Sichuan. Our AMOVA analysis revealed significantly higher levels of variation within populations and lower levels of variation among populations within regions. A relatively higher level of gene flow was also detected among populations for the four regions. Cluster analyses applying informative ISSR and SRAP polymorphic alleles distinguished closely related populations within each region. While similar members were grouped together by both ISSR and SRAP matrix, SRAP alleles were distinct from the ISSR markers. Both ISSR and SRAP allele profiling analyses signified high levels of genetic diversity for powdery mildew populations in Sichuan. We did not observe a significant association of these alleles with the virulence or pathogenicity of the pathogen. It appeared that ISSR and SRAP alleles were more efficient in characterization of smaller or more closely related populations than distantly related populations.