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Enzyme activation by alternating magnetic field: Importance of the bioconjugation methodology

Armenia, Ilaria, Grazú Bonavia, María Valeria, De Matteis, Laura, Ivanchenko, Pavlo, Martra, Gianmario, Gornati, Rosalba, de la Fuente, Jesus M., Bernardini, Giovanni
Journal of colloid and interface science 2019 v.537 pp. 615-628
alpha-amylase, aspartic acid, chemical bonding, enzyme activation, heat, immobilized enzymes, iron oxides, magnetic fields, metabolism, nanoparticles, temperature
Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are attractive materials for enzyme immobilization and, thanks to their superparamagnetism, can be accessed by remote stimuli. This can be exploited to activate molecules that are not remotely actuable. Here, we demonstrate that thermophilic enzymes chemically linked to NPs can be activated in a “wireless” fashion by an external alternate magnetic field (AMF). To this aim, we have conjugated, with different binding strategies, the thermophilic enzymes α-amylase and l-aspartate oxidase to iron oxide NPs obtaining NP-enzyme systems with activities depending on the different orientations and stretching of the enzymes. Since enzyme activation occurs without a significant rise of the “overall” temperature of the systems, we have speculated a local NP-enzyme heating that does not immediately interest the rest of the solution that remains at relatively low temperature, low enough to allow non-thermophilic enzymes to work together with the NP-conjugated thermophilic enzymes.Nanoactuation of thermophilic enzymes by AMF has potential applications in different fields. Indeed, multi-enzymatic processes with enzymes with different temperature optima could be carried out in the same reaction pot and thermolabile products could be efficiently produced by thermophilic enzymes without suffering for the high temperatures. Moreover, our findings represent a proof of concept of the possibility to achieve a fine-tuning of the enzyme-NP system with the aim to intervene in cell metabolism.