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Methionine and choline supply alter transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine pathways to different extents in isolated primary liver cells from dairy cows

Zhou, Y.F., Zhou, Z., Batistel, F., Martinez-Cortés, I., Pate, R.T., Luchini, D.L., Loor, J.J.
Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.12 pp. 11384-11395
Holstein, adenosylhomocysteinase, albumins, animal tissues, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, biopsy, choline, choline kinase, cystathionine beta-synthase, cysteine, cytidine, cytochrome P-450, dairy cows, epithelial cells, ethanolamine, genes, glutamate-cysteine ligase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, hepatocytes, lactation, liver, mammary glands, messenger RNA, methionine, methionine adenosyltransferase, milk proteins, parturition, phosphates, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, protein subunits, protein synthesis, sarcosines, urea
Insufficient supply of Met and choline (Chol) around parturition could compromise hepatic metabolism and milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Mechanistic responses associated with supply of Met or Chol in primary liver cells enriched with hepatocytes (PHEP) from cows have not been thoroughly ascertained. Objectives were to isolate and culture PHEP to examine abundance of genes and proteins related to transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathways in response to Met or Chol. The PHEP were isolated from liver biopsies of Holstein cows (160 d in lactation). More than 90% of isolated cells stained positively for the hepatocyte marker cytokeratin 18. Cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) mRNA abundance was only detectable in the PHEP and liver tissue compared with mammary tissue. Furthermore, in response to exogenous Met (80 μM vs. control) PHEP secreted greater amounts of albumin and urea. Subsequently, PHEP were cultured with Met (40 μM) or Chol (80 mg/dL) for 24 h. Compared with control or Chol, mRNA and protein abundance of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase (PEMT) were greater in PHEP treated with Met. The mRNA abundance of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) was greater in Met-treated PHEP compared with control or Chol. Compared with control, greater expression of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), and choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) was observed in cells supplemented with Met and Chol. However, Chol led to the greatest mRNA abundance of CHDH. Abundance of choline kinase α (CHKA), choline kinase β (CHKB), phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 α (PCYT1A), and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1) in the CDP-choline pathway was greater in PHEP treated with Chol compared with control or Met. In the transsulfuration pathway, mRNA and protein abundance of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) was greater in PHEP treated with Met compared with control or Chol. Similarly, abundance of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione reductase (GSR) was greater in response to Met compared with control or Chol. Overall, these findings suggest that transmethylation and transsulfuration in dairy cow primary liver cells are more responsive to Met supply, whereas the CDP-choline pathway is more responsive to Chol supply. The relevance of these data in vivo merit further study.