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Aluminosilicate clay improves production responses and reduces inflammation during an aflatoxin challenge in lactating Holstein cows

Pate, R.T., Paulus Compart, D.M., Cardoso, F.C.
Journal of dairy science 2018 v.101 no.12 pp. 11421-11434
additives, adsorbents, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, blood chemistry, blood serum, body weight, cholesterol, clay, cows, dairy cattle, diet, dry matter intake, feces, gene expression, glutamate dehydrogenase, histology, inflammation, lactating females, lactation, liver, milk, milk production, odds ratio, risk, statistical analysis, superoxide dismutase, total mixed rations, urine, Minnesota
Mitigation strategies are vital in minimizing the health and economic risks associated with dairy cattle exposure to aflatoxin (AF). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a commercially available aluminosilicate clay in a lactation diet on production responses, blood chemistry, and liver inflammatory markers of multiparous lactating Holstein cows during an AF challenge. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 758 ± 76 kg; days in milk = 157 ± 43 d] were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods: no adsorbent and no AF challenge (CON), no adsorbent and an AF challenge (POS), 113 g of aluminosilicate clay top-dressed on the total mixed ration (adsorbent; FloMatrix, PMI Nutritional Additives, Arden Hills, MN) with an AF challenge (F4), or 227 g of adsorbent with an AF challenge (F8). The challenge consisted of 100 μg of AFB1/kg of dietary dry matter intake administered orally. For each period, milk was sampled 3× daily from d 14 to 21; blood, feces, and urine were sampled on d 14, 18, and 21; and liver samples were taken on d 18. Liver tissue was assessed for gene expression and histological hepatocyte inflammation. Statistical analysis was preformed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Fat-corrected milk (POS = 37.2, F4 = 39.2, and F8 = 38.9 kg/d) increased as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased. There was a decrease in milk AFM1 concentration at d 18 as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased (POS = 0.33, F4 = 0.32, and F8 = 0.27 µg/kg). There was a decrease in AFM1 concentration in urine (POS = 2.10, F4 = 1.89, and F8 = 1.78 µg/kg) and AFB1 concentration in feces (POS = 4.68, F4 = 3.44, and F8 = 3.17 µg/kg) as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased. Cows in CON had greater concentrations of serum cholesterol (202 mg/dL) and plasma superoxide dismutase (2.8 U/mL) compared with cows in POS (196 mg/dL and 2.6 U/mL, respectively). Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase increased as concentration of adsorbent in the diet increased (POS = 37.8, F4 = 39.3, and F8 = 39.1 U/L). The expression of NFKB1 was greater in the liver of cows in POS (0.78) compared with cows in CON (0.70). The expression of MTOR was greater in the liver of cows in CON (1.19) compared with cows in POS (0.96). When compared with cows in CON, cows in POS had greater odds ratio for hepatocyte inflammation (odds ratio = 5.14). In conclusion, the adsorbent used in this study had a positive effect on milk production and hepatocyte inflammation and reduced AF transfer.