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Life history of Plodia interpunctella Hübner on sunflower seeds: Effects of seed qualitative traits and the initial seed damage

Gvozdenac, Sonja M., Prvulović, Dejan M., Radovanović, Mirjana N., Ovuka, Jelena S., Miklič, Vladimir J., Ačanski, Jelena M., Tanasković, Snežana T., Vukajlović, Filip N.
Journal of stored products research 2018 v.79 pp. 89-97
Helianthus annuus, Plodia interpunctella, adults, antioxidant activity, birds, fecundity, hulling, humans, larvae, larval development, life history, lipid content, mortality, oils, pests, phenols, principal component analysis, proteins, seed damage, seeds, sunflower seed, tannins, tocopherols
Sunflower seeds are regularly infested by Plodia interpunctella during storage. Although this pest prefers damaged seeds, in practice it can infest undamaged seeds as well. This research assessed the influence of the sunflower seed type (oil, protein for human consumption and bird-feed) and the initial seed damage during post-harvest processing (dehulled kernels, 10, 20, 30% of damaged seeds and undamaged seeds) on development of P. interpunctella (larval mortality, larval development, mean developmental duration, adult emergence and fecundity). Biochemical analysis of seeds, kernels and hulls detected the highest content of phenols in the seed and hull and tocopherols in the kernel of the oil type hybrid. The antioxidative activity was the highest in the seed, kernel and hull of the protein type for bird feed. The shortest development (39.5 days) and the highest fecundity (91.3) were on the oil type seeds, while the longest development (42.1 days) and the lowest fecundity (68.1) were on the seeds of the protein type for bird feed. The highest mortality of larvae was on the undamaged seeds of the protein type for bird feed and human consumption (21.3% and 14.0%, respectively). The type of sunflower and the level of initial damage affected larval mortality, developmental duration and fecundity. The mean developmental duration and the number of emerged adults were dependent only on the initial seed damage. Principal component analysis detected strong positive correlation between mortality and development with the tocopherol content on the undamaged seeds while fecundity was associated with the state of kernel and the amount of tannins, proteins and oil content in the seed. The undamaged seeds of the protein type for the bird feed were the least suitable for the development of this pest, while the oil type kernels were the most suitable.