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An injectable continuous stratified structurally and functionally biomimetic construct for enhancing osteochondral regeneration
- Zhu, Yanlun, Kong, Lingzhi, Farhadi, Fatemeh, Xia, Wei, Chang, Jiang, He, Yaohua, Li, Haiyan
- Biomaterials 2019 v.192 pp. 149-158
- agarose, alkaline phosphatase, biomimetics, bone marrow, cartilage, chondrocytes, coculture, collagen, gene expression, gene expression regulation, hydrogels, models, osteoblasts, rats, sodium alginate, stem cells, thermosensitivity
- Osteochondral regeneration with the formation of hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone as well as the integration between the newly formed tissues with the host tissue still remains a great challenge. In this study, a construct containing an injectable continuous stratified scaffold and multiple cell systems was designed for enhancing osteochondral regeneration. Briefly, an injectable sodium alginate(SA)/bioglass (BG) composite hydrogel containing bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) (SA/BG + BMSCs) was used for subchondral bone regeneration and an injectable thermosensitive SA/agarose (AG) composite hydrogel with co-culture of BMSCs and articular chondrocytes (ACs) (SA/AG + ACs/BMSCs) was applied for articular cartilage regeneration. The continuous SA phase and the stratified structure enable the scaffold to mimic the natural osteochondral structure. In addition, the SA/BG + BMSCs hydrogel could enhance the osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs by upregulating their alkaline phosphatase and collagen I gene expressions, and the SA/AG + ACs/BMSCs hydrogel could promote the chondrocyte differentiation of BMSCs by upregulating their Acan and collagen II gene expressions, which indicated that this stratified scaffold could mimic the natural osteochondral function. Furthermore, after the stratified construct was injected into a rat osteochondral defect model, obvious neonatal articular cartilage tissues and subchondral bone tissues with regular surface and highly integration with normal tissues could be observed. This structural and functional biomimetic construct, together with its proper swelling ratio, could not only stimulate the hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone regeneration in an entire osteochondral unit but also promote the integration between the newly formed tissues and the host tissue.