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Is the presence of Central European strains of Raphidiopsis (Cylindrospermopsis) raciborskii a threat to a freshwater fish? An in vitro toxicological study in common carp cells

Falfushynska, Halina, Horyn, Oksana, Brzozowska, Agnieszka, Fedoruk, Olga, Buyak, Bogdan, Poznansky, Dmytro, Poniedziałek, Barbara, Kokociński, Mikołaj, Rzymski, Piotr
Aquatic toxicology 2019 v.206 pp. 105-113
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Cyprinus carpio, DNA fragmentation, Raphidiopsis, acetylcholinesterase, adverse effects, brain, caspase-3, catalase, cyanobacterial toxins, enzyme activity, erythrocytes, freshwater fish, glutathione, glutathione transferase, hepatocytes, lipid peroxidation, mammals, metallothionein, models, neurotoxicity, reactive oxygen species, risk, thiols, Poland, Ukraine
As yet European strains of Raphidiopsis raciborskii (previously Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) have not been found to produce known cyanotoxins although their extracts have caused adverse effects in mammals, as shown using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The present study investigated whether R. raciborskii isolated from Western Poland and Ukraine can affect fish cells using in vitro exposures of hepatocytes and red blood cells (RBC), and brain homogenates obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to 1.0% and 0.1% extracts of 7 strains. The studied extracts evoked different responses of catalase activity in hepatocytes with both increase and decrease observed under low and high concentrations. The cellular thiol pool was also altered with most extracts inducing a decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, and Ukrainian strains leading to an increase in glutathione level and a decrease in metallothionein content. All the studied extracts induced comparable reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes, and all but one increased the activity of caspase-3. Only one extract caused lysosomal membrane destabilization as measured by neutral red retention in RBC. In contrast to extracts of Ukrainian isolates, exposure of brain homogenates to extracts of Polish strains induced an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity suggesting the neurotoxic action of their exudates. The results indicate that both Polish and Ukrainian strains of R. raciborskii may pose a toxicological risk to freshwater fish, and further, that Polish strains may produce compound(s) evoking neurotoxic effects.